Dyslexia Definition

Dyslexia is a neurologically based condition characterized by difficulties with accurate or fluent word recognition, poor spelling and trouble with decoding. The deficits found are unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities. It can also effect reading comprehension and reduced reading speed that can impedes vocabulary and background knowledge.


  • Difficulty learning the names of the letters
  • Difficulty with rhyming, such as nursery rhymes
  • Difficulty connecting the sound to the letters
  • Spoken language delay onset

Elementary Age

  • Reversing letters after mid-first grade, esp. b-d, p-q, 3-E, u-n, m-w
  • Difficulty naming objects, referring to items as "thing" or using wrong words all together
  • Difficulty with directions - left-right, up-down
  • Trouble understanding rhyming concept
  • Difficulty naming sequential items, such as days of week, 1-20 and alphabet order
  • Guesses words just by the beginning letter of a word

Elementary (3+) and Middle School

  • Continues to reverse letters
  • Writes capital B, or capital D in the middle of sentences
  • Misspells commonly read words, such as "does", "where", "great"
  • Slow out loud reader
  • Learns to spell for spelling test, but doesn't retain word beyond spelling test
  • Inconsistent spelling, ie spells it correct one day but not another
  • Hates to read and/or write